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Calmar ou encornet

Les calmars ou teuthides (Teuthida) constituent un ordre, apparu au début du Jurassique, de céphalopodes décapodes marins apparentés aux seiches et regroupant près de 300 espèces. La plupart des espèces n’ont pas de nom vernaculaire spécifique et sont donc désignées en français sous le nom générique de « calmar ».
La plupart des espèces n’ont été découvertes ou reconnues que récemment. Par conséquent elles n’ont pas de noms vernaculaires précis, les espèces les plus susceptibles d’avoir un nom vernaculaire stable étant les espèces spectaculaires ou les espèces commerciales.
Les populations méridionales et provençales françaises ont tendance à conserver la lettre « a » après le « l » (calamar) d’une manière analogue à l’espagnol (calamar) et à l’italien (calamaro).
Chez les poissonniers, l’appellation calmar désigne l’espèce Loligo vulgaris. Mais il existe une espèce qui ressemble beaucoup à ce calmar mais qui n’a pas les mêmes saveurs gustatives, il est plus dur à mastiquer. Parfois le poissonnier indiquera « encornet » pour les espèces (Todarodes Sagittatus et Illex coindetti). Attention, donc de ne pas les confondre. Le prix ne devrait pas être le même.
Pour reconnaitre ce faux calmar, on peut observer les nageoires plus petites et faisant un angle inférieur à 90°.

Les nageoires sont au 2/3 du corps, la peau est plus foncée.

Ici la photo du vrai calmar :


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