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Horlogerie

Une montre tourbillon avec une imprimante 3D

Les origines du tourbillon

Le tourbillon appelé aussi cage tournante a été inventé par le génie horloger des rois de France, Abraham Louis Breguet, à la fin du XIIIème siècle et fut breveté en 1801. Le tourbillon est toujours aujourd’hui synonyme de haute technicité, de haute horlogerie.

La raison d’exister du tourbillon : la gravité

Installé à Paris, Abraham Louis Breguet recherchait le mouvement perpétuel parfait. La précision d’une montre diffère selon sa position. Elle peut donc perdre ou gagner quelques secondes. En effet, le spiral n’étant pas complètement fixe donc soumis à la gravité, il provoque le déséquilibre du balancier qui a pour conséquence de perturber la précision du mouvement.

Principe du tourbillon

L’objectif du tourbillon est de faire prendre toutes les positions possibles à l’ensemble échappement /balancier en un temps donné. Ainsi il ne va pas supprimer le déséquilibre mais il va le compenser. Pour ce faire, on va imposer une rotation d’un tour par minute à tout l’ensemble, ce qui va déplacer le centre de gravité de manière permanente et régulière pour atteindre une marche moyenne dite d’équilibre.

Imprimante 3D

Christoph Laimer, un ingénieur suisse, a publié sur http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:1249221 les plans pour imprimer un mécanisme tourbillon.

Bien sûr la montre est un peu trop grosse, mais voici un beau résultat :

Les plans ont été dessinés sur Autodesk, l’ensemble des fichiers est ici :
https://myhub.autodesk360.com/ue29a46f4/shares/public/SHabee1QT1a327cf2b7a7

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