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Accélérer optimiser son site

Google a annoncé récemment qu’il tiendrait compte dans son page rank de la vitesse d’affichage des sites.  Cette déclaration a ému la communauté. En effet, les hébergements gratuits et sous-dimensionnés risquent de pâtir de cette règle.

En attendant de voir si Google mettra ce projet à exécution, voici quelques outils que Google met à disposition des webmasters pour optimiser la vitesse d’affichage de leur site.

Page Site est un add-on Firebug/FireFox

Une fois installé, on ira sur FireFox sur Outils>FireBug>Ouvrir FireBug puis sur l’onglet Page Speed on lancera l’application :

Page Speed indiquera les bonne règles à suivre :

  • Mettre les CSS avant les javascripts dans le head
  • de préférence mettre tous les css dans un seul fichier <link> mieux que @import
  • mettre les autres javascripts en bas de page
  • Donner des tailles aux images width et height
  • balise meta cache expiration (le navigateur gardera en cache la page)
  • compresser les CSS et javascripts par exemple minify YUI Compressor
  • réduire la taille des images
  • préférer les png aux gif
  • utilisation d’un cache pour les pages dynamiques (exemple total cache pour WordPress)
  • utiliser Google CDN

Le dernier point utiliser Google CDN peut paraitre obscur. La plupart des sites, abritent leur bibliothèque JavaScript sur leur propre serveur. Alors pourquoi utiliser des javascripts hébergés sur un serveur Google? Voici un certain nombre d’avantages:

1. Google Content Distribution Network possède des bibliothèques sur leurs différents serveurs à travers le monde et si vous utilisez leurs liens, lorsqu’ un internaute se connecte sur votre page, son navigateur télécharge automatiquement le fichier depuis le serveur le plus proche disponible, ce qui sera un téléchargement beaucoup plus rapide que si vous forcer un utilisateur à télécharger le fichier sur votre serveur hôte.
2. La distribution de contenu de Google réseau vous permettra d’économiser beaucoup de bande passante si vous avez un très gros trafic sur votre site et une bande passante limitée avec votre hébergeur.
3. Il y a de fortes chances que le système Google version hébergée de cette bibliothèque soit déjà mis en cache sur le cache du navigateur de l’utilisateur, car beaucoup de gros sites utilisent ce système.

Comment utiliser Google CDN?

Google CDN fournit la plupart des scripts, des bibliothèques JavaScript open source. On peut faire appel à ses codes de deux façons soit par la voie directe avec les
tags et via les bibliothèques Google AJAX API.

Utilisation Google API :

<script src="http://www.google.com/jsapi"></script>

et :

<script>
google.load("jquery", "1.3.2");
google.load("jqueryui", "1.7.1");
    google.setOnLoadCallback(function(){
        // use this instead of:
        /*
            $(document).ready(function(){  });
        */
    });
</script>

On trouvera ici la liste des librairies fournies par Google.

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